App. 023/2019_ Thomas Boni Yayi vs Burkina Faso

Thomas Boni Yayi vs Republic of Burkina Faso On June 11th, 2022, Mr. Thomas Boni Yayi (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Burkina Faso (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Charter) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 014/2019_ Geremy Baguian vs Burkina Faso

Geremy Baguian vs Republic of Burkina Faso On May 28th, 2019, Mr. Geremy Baguian (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Burkina Faso (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ […]

App. 013/2019_ Ulrich Dibgolongo vs Burkina Faso

Ulrich Sergio Dibgolongo vs Republic of Burkina Faso On April 23rd, 2019, Mr. Ulrich Sergio Dibgolongo (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Burkina Faso (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 004/2019_ Ibrahima Podiogou vs Mali

Ibrahima Podiogou vs Republic of Mali On January 14th, 2019, Mister Ibrahima Podiogou and others (together the Applicants) filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and […]

App. 002/2019_ Yacouba Traore vs Mali

Yacoube Traore vs Republic of Mali On January 14th, 2019, Mr. Yacouba Traore (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the […]

App. 016/2018_ Hussein Fundumu vs Tanzania

Hussein Ally Fundumu vs United Republic of Tanzania On May 10th, 2018, Mr. Hussein Ally Fundumu (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 008/2018_ Fousseyni Diarra et al. vs Mali

Fousseyni Diarra et al. vs Republic of Mali On February 20th, 2018, Misters Fousseyni Diarra and some of his colleagues (together the Applicants) have filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violatons of […]

App. 005/2018_ Joseph John vs Tanzania

Joseph John vs United Republic of Tanzania On February 18th, Mr. Joseph John (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court), for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights […]

App. 035/3027_ Sijaona Machera vs Tanzania

Sijaona Chacha Machera vs United Republic of Tanzania On November 08th, 2017, Mr. Sijaona Chacha Machera (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 021/2017_ John Marwa vs Tanzania

John Martin Marwa vs United Republic of Tanzania On July 4th, 2017, Mr. John Martin Marwa (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 055/2016_ Cleophas Motiba vs Tanzania

Cleophas Maheri Motiba vs United Republic of Tanzania On September 14th, 2016, Mr. Cleophas Maheri Motiba, (the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human […]

App. 017/2017_ Abdallah Mabomba et al. vs Tanzania

Abdallah Mabomba et al. vs United Republic of Tanzania On June 13th, 2017, Misters Abdallad Mabomba, Nyigini Alex, Hussein Nyawaya and Daniel Ngulu, (together the Applicants), filed an application instituting proceeding against the United Republic of Tanzania (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged […]

App. 017/2021_ Ibrahim Belguith vs Tunisia

Ibrahim Ben Mohamed Ben Ibrahim Belguith vs Republic of Tunisia On October 21st, 2021, Mr. Ibrahim Ben Mohamed Ben Ibrahim Belguith (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Tunisia (the defendant State) before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the […]

App. 015/2021_Kouassi Kouame et al. vs Cote d’Ivoire

Kouassi Kouame et Baba Sylla vs Cote d’Ivoire  On April 23rd, 2021, Misters Kouassi Kouame and Baba Sylla (together the Applicants), filed an Application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire (the Respondent State) before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African […]

App. 032/2020_ Eric Noudehouenou vs Benin

Houngue Eric Noudehouenou vs Republic of Benin On October 15th, Mr. Houngue Eric Noudehouenou (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin (the defendant State) before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights […]

App. 013/2020_Komi Koutche vs Benin

Komi Koutche vs Republic of Benin On March 25th, 2020, Mr. Komi Koutche, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations on the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its […]

App. 004/2020_Eric Noudehouenou vs Benin

Houngue Eric Noudehouenou vs Republic of Benin On January 21st, 2020, Mr. Houngue Eric Noudehouenou (the Applicant), filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin (the defendant State) before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ […]

App. 010/2015_ Amiri Ramadhani vs Tanzania

Amiri Ramadhani vs United Republic of Tanzania On May 11th, 2016, Mr. Amiri Ramadhani, (the applicant), filed an application instituting proceeding against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in […]

App. 032/2015_ Kijiji Isiaga vs Tanzania

Kijiji Isiaga vs United Republic of Tanzania On December 8th, 2015, Mr. Kijiji Isiaga, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) […]

App. 088/2016_ Masoud Rabaju vs Tanzania

Masoud Rabaju vs United Republic of Tanzania On February 10th, 2016, Mr. Masoud Rabaju, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of the Human and Peoples’ Rights (the […]

App. 003/2017_ Confédération Syndicale des Travailleurs du Mali vs Mali

Confédération Syndicale des Travailleurs du Mali vs Republic of Mali On April 06th, 2017, the Confederation Syndicale des Travailleurs du Mali (the CSTM or the Applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the […]

App. 023/2016_ Yahaya Makome vs Tanzania

Yahaya Zumo Makame vs United Republic of Tanzania On April 13th, 2016, Misters Makame, Mpakarasi, Ibrahim and Pourdad (together the applicants) filed an application instituting the proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations of the African Charter of […]

App. 033/2018_ Ali Ben Youcef vs Tunisia

Ali Ben Hassen Ben Youcef vs Republic of Tunisia On October 12th, 2018, M. Ali Ben Youcef, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Tunisia before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations for the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights […]

App. 006/2019_ Moussa Kante et al. vs Mali

Moussa Kante et al. vs Republic of Mali On February 21st, 2019, Mr. Moussa Kante and others, together the applicants, filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ […]

App. 020/2019_ Komi Koutche vs Benin

Komi Koutche vs Republic of Benin On April 23rd, 2019, Mr. Komi Koutche, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) for alleged violations on the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its […]

App. 065/2019_ Sebastien Aikoue Ajavon vs Benin

Sebastien Aikoue Ajavon vs Republic of Benin On November 29th, 2019, Mr. Sebastien Aikoue Ajavon, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) against the Republic of Benin for  alleged violations of the African Charter on Humans and Peoples’ Rights  (the Charter) […]

App. 004/2016_ Evodius Rutechura vs Tanzania

Evodius Rutechura vs United Republic of Tanzania On January 13th, 2016, Mr. Evodius Rutechura, (the applicant) filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) […]

App. 022/2016_ Mussa Zanzibar vs Tanzania

Mussa Zanzibar vs United Republic of Tanzania On April 13th, 2016, Mr. Mussa Zanzibar, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Right (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in […]

App. 054/2016_ Mhina Zubery vs Tanzania

Mhina Zubery vs United Republic of Tanzania On September 2nd, 2016, Mr. Mhina Zubery, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court of the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in […]

App. 007/2019_Tiekoro Sangare et al vs Mali

Tiekoro Sangare et al. vs Republic of Mali On February 21st, 2019, Mr. Tiekoro Sangara and 15 other people, together referred to as the applicants, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali for alleged violations of the African […]

App. 022/2017_Harold Munthani vs Malawi

Harold Mbalanda Munthani vs Republic of Malawi On July 27th, 2017, Mr. Harold Mbalanda Munthani (the Applicant) filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Malawi for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) […]

App. 006/2016_ Mgoso Makungu vs Tanzania

Mgosi Mwita Makungu vs United Republic of Tanzania On January 29th, 2016, Mr. Mgoso Mwita Makungu (the Applicant) filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) a application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights […]

App. 006/2012_ African Commission vs Republic of Kenya

African Commission of Human and Peoples’ Rights vs Republic of Kenya On July 12th, 2012, the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Applicant or the Commission) filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the ACHPR or the the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Kenya for alleged […]

App. 008/2020_Ghaby and Nabyh Kodeih vs Republic of Benin

Ghaby Kodeih and Nabyh Kodeih vs Republic of Benin On February 17th, 2020, Mr Ghaby and Mr Nabyh Kodeih (the applicants) filed with the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and […]

App. 026/2020_Emil Touray et al. vs The Gambia

Emil Touray et al. vs Republic of the Gambia On September 16th, 2020, Mr. Emil Touray and other applicants filed before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of The Gambia for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ […]

App. 013/2016_ Stephen Rutakikirwa vs Tanzania

Stephen John Rutakikirwa vs United Republic of Tanzania On March 3rd, 2016, Mr. Stephen Rutakikirwa, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3 and 7. Mr. Rutakikirwa had been […]

App. 021/2016_Joseph Mukwano vs Tanzania

Joseph Mukwano vs United Republic of Tanzania On April 5th, 2016, Mr. Joseph Mukwano, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 2, 3 and 7. Mr. Mukwano had […]

App. 030/2017_Almas M.Muwinda et al. vs Tanzania

Almas M. Muwinda et al. vs United Republic of Tanzania On September 25th, 2017, Mr. Muwinda and other applicants, filed with the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, as well as other international instruments. The applicants […]

App. 036/2017_ Rabaju Yusuph vs Tanzania

Rabaju Yusuph vs United Republic of Tanzania On November 08th, 2017, Mr Rabaju Yusuph, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in […]

App. 029/2018_ Oumar Mariko vs Mali

Oumar Mariko vs Republic of Mali On November 17th, 2018, Mr. Oumar Mariko, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) against the Republic of Mali for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3, 7 and 26, […]

App.031/2018_Laurent Métongnon et al. vs Benin

Laurent Metongnon et al. vs Republic of Benin On December 06th, 2018, Mr Laurent Métongnon and 3 other defendants, the applicants, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court or the ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in […]

App. 056/2016_Gozbert Henerico vs Tanzania

Gozbert Henerico vs United Republic of Tanzania On September 15th, 2016, Mr Gozbert Henerico, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (ACHPR) for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 4, 5 and 7. Mr. Henerico had been […]

App. 005/2015_Thobias Mango et al. vs Tanzania

Thobias Mango and Shukurani Mango vs United Republic of Tanzania On February 11th, 2015, Misters Shukurani and Thobias Mango (Applicants), filed an application before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violation of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ […]

App. 016/2020_ Hossou et al. vs Benin

Glory Hossou et Landry Adelakoun vs Republic of Benin On May 7th, 2020, Mr. Hossou and Mr. Adelajoun, Applicants, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) as well as […]

App. 012/2015_ Anudo Ochieng Anudo vs Tanzania

Anudo Ochieng Anudo vs United Republic of Tanzania On May 24th, 2015, Mr. Ochieng Anudo, filed before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its articles 7, 12 et […]

App. 023/2015_Munyandilikirwa vs Rwanda

Laurent Munyandilikirwa vs Republic of Rwanda On September 23rd, 2015, Mr. Laurent Munyandilikirwa, a Rwandan citizen, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Rwanda for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its articles 1,2,3,7,9,10, […]

App. 001/2021_ Yaya Kone vs Mali

Yaya Kone vs Republic of Mali On January 7th, 2021, Mr. Yaya Kone, Applicant, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Mali for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its articles 3 and 7. […]

App. 005/2016_ Sadick Marwa Kisase vs Tanzania

Sadick Marwa Kisase vs United Republic of Tanzania On January 13th, 2016, Mr. Sadick Marwa Kisase, Applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter of the Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its […]

App. 014/2016_Selemani Marwa vs Tanzania

Mohammed Selemani Marwa vs United Republic of Tanzania On March 3rd, 2016, Mr. Mohammed Selemani Marwa, Applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter of the Human and Peoples’ Rights in its articles […]

App. 035/2016_ Robert Richard vs Tanzania

Robert Richard vs United Republic of Tanzania On June 08th, 2016, Mr. Robert Richard, Applicant, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its article 7(1)(d). […]

App. 028/2017_Layford Makene vs Tanzania

Layford Makene vs United Republic of Tanzania On September 14th, 2017, Mr. Layford Makene, Applicant, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application of instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its articles […]

App. 034/2017_ Kouadio Kobena Fory vs Cote d’Ivoire

Kouadio Kobena Fory vs Cote d’Ivoire On November 8th, 2017, Mr. Kouadio Kobena Fory, Applicant, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings  in his name and that of his wife and children, an application instituting proceedings for alleged violations of the African Charter of Human and […]

App. 026/2015_Hamis Shaban vs Tanzania

Hamis Shaban vs United Republic of Tanzania On November 2nd, 2015, Mr. Hamis Shaban, the Applicant, filed before the African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter in its articles […]

App. 011/2019_ Yusuph Said vs Tanzania

Yusuph Said vs United Republic of Tanzania On March 22nd, 2019, Mr. Yusuph Said, applicant, filed with the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings before the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3(1) (2) and 7(1). Mr. Said, a Tanzanian national, was […]

App. 002/2017_Karatta et al. vs Tanzania

Ernest Karatta et al. vs United Republic of Tanzania On January 26th, 2017, Mr Ernest Karatta and 1746 other applicants filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 2, 3(2), […]

App. 047/2016_Ladislaus Onesmo vs Tanzania

Ladislaus Onesmo vs United Republic of Tanzania On August 23rd, 2016, Mr. Ladislaus Onesmo, the applicant, filed with the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3(2) […]

App. 026/2016_Bernard Babele vs Tanzania

Bernard Babele vs United Republic of Tanzania On April 22nd, 2016, M. Bernard Babele, applicant, filed before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3 […]

App. 024/2016_Amini Juma vs Tanzania

Amini Juma vs United Republic of Tanzania Case On April 13th, 2016, M. Amini Juma, the applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 4, 5 and 7. The […]

App. 018/2016_Cosma Faustin vs Tanzania

Cosma Faustin vs United Republic of Tanzania On March 22nd, 2016, Mr Cosma Faustin, applicant, filed an application instituting proceedings before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3 (1) and (2) and 7(1). Mr […]

App. 001/2016_Chrizostom Benyoma vs Tanzania

Chrizostom Benyoma vs United Republic of Tanzania On January 04th, 2016, Mr Chrizostom Benyoma, applicant, filed before the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its Articles 3(1) […]

App. 029/2015_ Yusuph Hassani vs Tanzania

Yusuph Hassani vs Republic of Tanzania Case On November 23rd, 2015, the applicant, Mr Yusuph Hassani, filed with the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the United Republic of Tanzania concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter). Indeed, Mr. Hassani, […]

App. 003/2015_Onyachi and Mwanini vs Tanzania

Kennedy Owino Onyachi and Charles John Njoka Mwanini vs Republic of Tanzania Case On January 7th, 2015, the applicants, both Kenyan citizens, submitted to the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Court) an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Tanzania for alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights […]

App. 006/2020_Ghaby Kodeih vs Republic of Benin

Case of Ghaby Kodeih vs Republic of Benin On February 14th, 2020, Mr. Ghaby Kodeih filed an application instituting proceedings against the Republic of Benin concerning alleged violations of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (the Charter) in its articles 7-1 ( a), 7-1 (d) and 14. Indeed, he claims that a seizure […]